Gray Soft

The programming blog of James Edward Gray II (JEG2).
  • 31

    DEC
    2014

    Game Programming Patterns

    I meet a lot of programmers that tell me they got started because they wanted to build games. However, when I ask most of them which games they have built, the list rarely includes anything more than mostly unplayable toy projects.

    I can only guess at the reasons for this oddity, but I suspect it might be due to the fact that games are fairly complex. Even if you want to rebuild a fairly simple classic like Space Invaders or Snake you need to know at least a little about event loops, keyboard handling, animation, and collision detection. If your day job involves a different kind of programming, like Web application development, odds are good that you don't get a lot of practice with these concepts.

    That may not be your story, but it was definitely mine. This year I decided that it was finally time to learn how to build games. I used several sources to gain this knowledge and some helped more than others, but the biggest win by far was a book called Game Programming Patterns by Bob Nystrom.

    Read more…

  • 31

    OCT
    2014

    How to Avoid Taking a Dart to the Knee

    I've been playing with Dart quite a bit lately. I really enjoy the language, but there are always snags that trip up those coming from other backgrounds. Here are the top three issues that have bit me in Dart, in the hopes of saving others some pain:

    The Truth and Nothing But the Truth… Literally!

    One of the challenges of any language is figuring out what it considers to be truthy in conditional expressions. Each system has its twists, but I find Dart to be extra strict in this case.

    Here's some code illustrating the rule:

    bool isTruthy(Object condition) {
      return !!condition;
    }
    
    void main() {
      var tests = [true, false, null, 42, 0, "", [ ], new Object()];
      for (var test in tests) {
        print("$test is ${isTruthy(test)}");
      }
    }
    

    That outputs:

    $ dart truthiness.dart
    true is true
    false is false
    null is false
    42 is false
    0 is false
     is false
    [] is false
    Instance of 'Object' is false
    

    As you can see the literal true (just that one object) is truthy in Dart and everything else is considered false. I'm in the habit of playing pretty fast and loose with truthiness from all of my time working with Ruby, so this has surprised me a few times.

    Read more…

  • 24

    OCT
    2014

    The Three Tick Sort

    Yesterday I showed a newer programmer some code like scores.sort_by(&:reverse). This provoked a comment about how they where going to look up sort_by() later to figure out what magic is involved here. It made me sad to realize how many cool tricks they weren't going to see in that bit of documentation.

    Allow me to enumerate those tricks for you, but first let's flesh out an example. Consider this code:

    scores = {
      fifteen:         2,
      five_card_run:   5,
      five_card_flush: 5,
      four_card_run:   4,
      four_card_flush: 4,
      his_nobs:        1,
      pair:            2,
      three_card_run:  3,
    }
    scores.sort_by(&:reverse).each do |name, score|
      puts "Score #{score} for #{name}."
    end
    # >> Score 1 for his_nobs.
    # >> Score 2 for fifteen.
    # >> Score 2 for pair.
    # >> Score 3 for three_card_run.
    # >> Score 4 for four_card_flush.
    # >> Score 4 for four_card_run.
    # >> Score 5 for five_card_flush.
    # >> Score 5 for five_card_run.
    

    In this case, the magic method call (scores.sort_by(&:reverse)) has reordered a list of Cribbage hands first by point value and then alphabetically ("ASCIIabetically" in truth). How this happens is a pretty interesting journey though.

    Read more…

  • 25

    SEP
    2014

    Regex Code Equivalency

    #!/usr/bin/env ruby -w
    
    Name = "Gray, James"
    
    !!(Name =~ /\AGray/)      # => true
    Name.start_with?("Gray")  # => true
    
    !!(Name =~ /James\z/)    # => true
    Name.end_with?("James")  # => true
    
    !!(Name =~ /Dana/)     # => false
    Name.include?("Dana")  # => false
    
    !!(Name =~ /\A\z/)  # => false
    Name.empty?         # => false
    
    !!(Name =~ /\AGray, James\z/)  # => true
    Name == "Gray, James"          # => true
    
    !!(Name =~ /\A(?:Gray, James|Gray, Dana)\z/)  # => true
    ["Gray, James", "Gray, Dana"].include?(Name)  # => true
    
    Name =~ /\A\w+/ && $&  # => "Gray"
    Name[/\A\w+/]          # => "Gray"
    
    Name =~ /\A(\w+),\s*(\w+)\z/ && $2  # => "James"
    Name[/\A(\w+),\s*(\w+)\z/, 2]       # => "James"
    
    Name =~ /\A(?<last>\w+),\s*(?<first>\w+)\z/ && $~[:first]  # => "James"
    Name[/\A(?<last>\w+),\s*(?<first>\w+)\z/, :first]          # => "James"
    
    Name.scan(/^.*\n?/)  # => ["Gray, James"]
    Name.lines           # => ["Gray, James"]
    
    Name.scan(/./m)  # => ["G", "r", "a", "y", ",", " ", "J", "a", "m", "e", "s"]
    Name.chars       # => ["G", "r", "a", "y", ",", " ", "J", "a", "m", "e", "s"]
    
    Name.gsub(/[aeiou]/, "")  # => "Gry, Jms"
    Name.delete("aeiou")      # => "Gry, Jms"
    
    Name.gsub(/[aeiou]/, "X") # => "GrXy, JXmXs"
    Name.tr("aeiou", "X")     # => "GrXy, JXmXs"
    
    # For the destructive operations that follow you can drop the `dup()` and
    # switch `sub()` to `sub!()`, as long as you don't care about the return value.
    
    Name.sub(/(?=,)/, " II")                 # => "Gray II, James"
    Name.dup.insert(Name.index(","), " II")  # => "Gray II, James"
    
    Name.sub(/\A/, "Name:  ")    # => "Name:  Gray, James"
    Name.dup.prepend("Name:  ")  # => "Name:  Gray, James"
    
    Name.sub(/\A.*\z/m, "Gray, Dana")  # => "Gray, Dana"
    Name.dup.replace("Gray, Dana")     # => "Gray, Dana"
    
    Name.sub(/\A.*\z/m, "")  # => ""
    Name.dup.clear           # => ""
    
    
    
    Spacey = "\tsome    space\r\n"
    
    Spacey.sub(/\A\s+/, "")  # => "some    space\r\n"
    Spacey.lstrip            # => "some    space\r\n"
    
    Spacey.sub(/\s+\z/, "")  # => "\tsome    space"
    Spacey.rstrip            # => "\tsome    space"
    
    Spacey.sub(/\A\s*(.+?)\s*\z/m, '\1')  # => "some    space"
    Spacey.strip                          # => "some    space"
    
    Spacey.sub(/(?:\r?\n|\r)\z/m, "")  # => "\tsome    space"
    Spacey.chomp                       # => "\tsome    space"
    
    Spacey.sub(/(?:\r\n|.)\z/m, "")  # => "\tsome    space"
    Spacey.chop                      # => "\tsome    space"
    
    Spacey.gsub(/ +/, " ")  # => "\tsome space\r\n"
    Spacey.squeeze(" ")     # => "\tsome space\r\n"
    
  • 22

    SEP
    2014

    A Regex Can't Match Balanced Parentheses

    Can we do math with regular expressions?

    #!/usr/bin/env ruby -w
    
    def build_preparation_regex(number_regex, ops)
      %r{
        (?<number>             #{number_regex}                                   ){0}
        (?<operator>           [#{ops.map(&Regexp.method(:escape)).join}]        ){0}
        (?<term_operator_term> \g<term> \s* \g<operator> \s* \g<term>            ){0}
        (?<term>               \g<number> | \( \s* \g<term_operator_term> \s* \) ){0}
    
        \g<term_operator_term>(?=\s*\z|[^)])
      }x
    end
    
    NUMBER_REGEX               = %r{
      -?            # an optional minus
      \d+           # an integer
      (?: \. \d+)?  # an optional fractional bit
    }x
    PREPARE_MULT_AND_DIV_REGEX = build_preparation_regex(NUMBER_REGEX, %w[* /])
    PREPARE_ADD_AND_SUB_REGEX  = build_preparation_regex(NUMBER_REGEX, %w[* / + -])
    CHECK_REGEX                = %r{
      \A                   # the start of the expression
      (?<term>             # a term, which is:
        #{NUMBER_REGEX}    # a number
        |                  # or
        \( \s*             # a parenthesized group of
          \g<term>         # a term
          \s* [*/+\-] \s*  # an operator
          \g<term>         # and another term
        \s* \)             # the end of the parenthesized group
      )
      \z                   # the end of the expression
    }x
    MATH_REGEX                 = %r{
      \( \s*
      (?<left>     #{NUMBER_REGEX} )
      \s*
      (?<operator> [*/+\-]         )
      \s*
      (?<right>    #{NUMBER_REGEX} )
      \s* \)
    }x
    
    verbose = ARGV.delete("-v")
    problem = ARGV.first.strip or abort "USAGE:  #{$PROGRAM_NAME} MATH_EXPRESSION"
    steps   = [ ]
    
    [PREPARE_MULT_AND_DIV_REGEX, PREPARE_ADD_AND_SUB_REGEX].each do |preparation|
      loop do
        steps << problem.dup if verbose
        problem.sub!(preparation) { |term| "(#{term})" } or break
      end
    end
    
    problem =~ CHECK_REGEX or abort "Error:  Invalid expression"
    
    solution = problem.dup
    loop do
      steps << solution.dup if verbose
      solution.sub!(MATH_REGEX) {
        $~[:left].to_f.public_send($~[:operator], $~[:right].to_f)
      } or break
    end
    
    puts steps.uniq[0..-2] if verbose
    puts solution.sub(/\.0+\z/, "")
    

    Read more…

  • 20

    SEP
    2014

    Can You snake_case/CamelCase With One Regex?

    In Rails, methods like underscore() and camelize() use several regexen to transform the String under the hood. Many people have asked if you can do it with a single regex though. These specs I borrowed from Rails seem to say yes:

    #!/usr/bin/env ruby -w
    
    class String
      def snake_case(acronyms = self.class.acronyms)
        gsub( %r{
          (?:
            (?<before>  \b | [A-Za-z\d]   )
            (?<acronym> #{acronyms.regex} )
            (?<after>   \b | [^a-z]       )
          )
          |
          (?: (?<before> [A-Z]+ ) (?<after> [A-Z][^A-Z] ) )
          |
          (?: (?<before> [^A-Z:] ) (?<after> [A-Z] ) )
          |
          (?<nesting> :: )
        }x ) { |m|
          if $~[:nesting]
            "/"
          else
            [$~[:before], $~[:acronym], $~[:after]]
              .compact
              .reject(&:empty?)
              .join("_")
          end
        }.downcase
      end
    
      def CamelCase(acronyms = self.class.acronyms)
        gsub( %r{
          (?:
            (?: \A | _ | (?<nesting> / ) )
            (?<acronym> #{acronyms.inverted_regex} )
            (?= \b | [A-Z_] )
          )
          |
          (?: (?: \A | _ ) (?<letter> . ) )
          |
          (?: (?<nesting> / ) (?<letter> . ) )
        }mx ) {
          nested      = $~[:nesting] && "::"
          capitalized = acronyms.capitalize($~[:acronym]) { $~[:letter].upcase }
          "#{nested}#{capitalized}"
        }
      end
    
      def camelCase
        self.CamelCase.sub(/\A[A-Z]/) { |first_char| first_char.downcase }
      end
    
      def self.acronyms
        @acronyms ||= AcronymManager.new
      end
    end
    
    class AcronymManager
      NEVER_MATCHES = /\zA/
    
      def initialize
        @acronyms = { }
        @inverted = { }
      end
    
      attr_reader :acronyms, :inverted
      private     :acronyms, :inverted
    
      def add(acronym)
        acronyms[acronym] = acronym.downcase
        @inverted         = acronyms.invert
      end
    
      def regex
        return NEVER_MATCHES if acronyms.empty?
    
        /(?:#{acronyms.keys.map(&Regexp.method(:escape)).join('|')})/
      end
    
      def inverted_regex
        return NEVER_MATCHES if acronyms.empty?
    
        /(?:#{inverted.keys.map(&Regexp.method(:escape)).join('|')})/
      end
    
      def capitalize(acronym, &default)
        inverted.fetch(acronym, &default)
      end
    end
    
    if $PROGRAM_NAME == __FILE__
      require "minitest/autorun"
    
      describe "Case changing" do
        # https://github.com/rails/rails/blob/
        # 620f4a4fc962c863b91a51876ffdf58f33bedb9c/activesupport/test/
        # inflector_test_cases.rb#L118-L123
        let(:examples) {
          {
            "Product"               => "product",
            "SpecialGuest"          => "special_guest",
            "ApplicationController" => "application_controller",
            "Area51Controller"      => "area51_controller",
          }
        }
        # https://github.com/rails/rails/blob/
        # 620f4a4fc962c863b91a51876ffdf58f33bedb9c/activesupport/test/
        # inflector_test_cases.rb#L139-L145
        let(:one_way_snake_examples) {
          {
            "HTMLTidy"              => "html_tidy",
            "HTMLTidyGenerator"     => "html_tidy_generator",
            "FreeBSD"               => "free_bsd",
            "HTML"                  => "html",
            "ForceXMLController"    => "force_xml_controller"
          }
        }
        # https://github.com/rails/rails/blob/
        # 620f4a4fc962c863b91a51876ffdf58f33bedb9c/activesupport/test/
        # inflector_test.rb#L98
        let(:one_way_camel_examples) {
          {
            "CamelCase"             => "Camel_Case"
          }
        }
        # added by James
        let(:path_examples) {
          {
            "SomeLib::WithClass"    => "some_lib/with_class"
          }
        }
        # https://github.com/rails/rails/blob/
        # 620f4a4fc962c863b91a51876ffdf58f33bedb9c/activesupport/test/
        # inflector_test.rb#L101-L145
        let(:acronym_examples) {
          {
            "API"                   => "api",
            "APIController"         => "api_controller",
            "Nokogiri::HTML"        => "nokogiri/html",
            "HTTPAPI"               => "http_api",
            "HTTP::Get"             => "http/get",
            "SSLError"              => "ssl_error",
            "RESTful"               => "restful",
            "RESTfulController"     => "restful_controller",
            "Nested::RESTful"       => "nested/restful",
            "IHeartW3C"             => "i_heart_w3c",
            "PhDRequired"           => "phd_required",
            "IRoRU"                 => "i_ror_u",
            "RESTfulHTTPAPI"        => "restful_http_api",
    
            # misdirection
            "Capistrano"            => "capistrano",
            "CapiController"        => "capi_controller",
            "HttpsApis"             => "https_apis",
            "Html5"                 => "html5",
            "Restfully"             => "restfully",
            "RoRails"               => "ro_rails"
          }
        }
    
        it "can snake_case a String" do
          examples.each do |camel, snake|
            camel.snake_case.must_equal(snake)
          end
        end
    
        it "can handle some tricky one-way cases for snake_case" do
          one_way_snake_examples.each do |camel, snake|
            camel.snake_case.must_equal(snake)
          end
        end
    
        it "can CamelCase a String" do
          examples.each do |camel, snake|
            snake.CamelCase.must_equal(camel)
          end
        end
    
        it "can handle some tricky one-way cases for CamelCase" do
          one_way_camel_examples.each do |camel, snakey|
            snakey.CamelCase.must_equal(camel)
          end
        end
    
        it "can camelCase a String" do
          "camel_case".camelCase.must_equal("camelCase")
        end
    
        it "can convert nesting to paths and back" do
          path_examples.each do |camel, snake|
            camel.snake_case.must_equal(snake)
            snake.CamelCase.must_equal(camel)
          end
        end
    
        it "is aware of acronyms" do
          acronyms = AcronymManager.new
          acronyms.add("API")
          acronyms.add("HTML")
          acronyms.add("HTTP")
          acronyms.add("RESTful")
          acronyms.add("W3C")
          acronyms.add("PhD")
          acronyms.add("RoR")
          acronyms.add("SSL")
    
          acronym_examples.each do |camel, snake|
            camel.snake_case(acronyms).must_equal(snake)
            snake.CamelCase(acronyms).must_equal(camel)
          end
        end
      end
    end
    

    Read more…

  • 19

    SEP
    2014

    "You can't parse [X]HTML with regex."

    The only explanation I'll give for the following code it to provide this link to my favorite Stack Overflow answer.

    #!/usr/bin/env ruby -w
    
    require "open-uri"
    
    URL    = "http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1732348/" +
             "regex-match-open-tags-except-xhtml-self-contained-tags"
    PARSER = %r{
      (?<doctype_declaration>
        <!DOCTYPE\b (?<doctype> [^>]* ) >
      ){0}
      (?<comment>
        <!-- .* -->
      ){0}
    
      (?<script_tag>
        < \s* (?<tag_name> script ) \s* (?<attributes> [^>]* > )
          (?<script> .*? )
        < \s* / \s* script \s* >
      ){0}
      (?<self_closed_tag>
        < \s* (?<tag_name> \w+ ) \s* (?<attributes> [^>]* / \s* > )
      ){0}
      (?<unclosed_tag>
        < \s*
        (?<tag_name> link | meta | br | input | hr | img ) \b
        \s*
        (?<attributes> [^>]* > )
      ){0}
      (?<open_tag>
        < \s* (?<tag_name> \w+ ) \s* (?<attributes> [^>]* > )
      ){0}
      (?<close_tag>
        < \s* / \s* (?<tag_name> \w+ ) \s* >
      ){0}
    
      (?<attribute>
        (?<attribute_name> [-\w]+ )
        (?: \s* = \s* (?<attribute_value> "[^"]*" | '[^']*' | [^>\s]+ ) )? \s*
      ){0}
      (?<attribute_list>
        \g<attribute>
        (?= [^>]* > \z )  # attributes keep a trailing > to disambiguate from text
      ){0}
    
      (?<text>
        (?! [^<]* /?\s*> \z )  # a guard to prevent this from parsing attributes
        [^<]+
      ){0}
    
      \G
      (?:
        \g<doctype_declaration>
        |
        \g<comment>
        |
        \g<script_tag>
        |
        \g<self_closed_tag>
        |
        \g<unclosed_tag>
        |
        \g<open_tag>
        |
        \g<attribute_list>
        |
        \g<close_tag>
        |
        \g<text>
      )
      \s*
    }mix
    
    def parse(html)
      stack = [{attributes: [ ], contents: [ ], name: :root}]
      loop do
        html.sub!(PARSER, "") or break
        if $~[:doctype_declaration]
          add_to_tree(stack.last, "DOCTYPE", $~[:doctype].strip)
        elsif $~[:script_tag]
          add_to_stack(stack, $~[:tag_name], $~[:attributes], $~[:script])
        elsif $~[:self_closed_tag] || $~[:unclosed_tag] || $~[:open_tag]
          add_to_stack(stack, $~[:tag_name], $~[:attributes], "", $~[:open_tag])
        elsif $~[:close_tag]
          stack.pop
        elsif $~[:text]
          stack.last[:contents] << $~[:text]
        end
      end
      stack.pop
    end
    
    def add_to_tree(branch, name, value)
      if branch.include?(name)
        branch[name]  = [branch[name]] unless branch[name].is_a?(Array)
        branch[name] << value
      else
        branch[name] = value
      end
    end
    
    def add_to_stack(stack, tag_name, attributes_html, contents, open = false)
      tag = { attributes: parse_attributes(attributes_html),
              contents:   [contents].reject(&:empty?),
              name:       tag_name }
      add_to_tree(stack.last, tag_name, tag)
      stack.last[:contents] << tag
      stack                 << tag if open
    end
    
    def parse_attributes(attributes_html)
      attributes = { }
      loop do
        attributes_html.sub!(PARSER, "") or break
        add_to_tree(
          attributes,
          $~[:attribute_name],
          ($~[:attribute_value] || $~[:attribute_name]).sub(/\A(["'])(.*)\1\z/, '\2')
        )
      end
      attributes
    end
    
    def convert_to_bbcode(node)
      if node.is_a?(Hash)
        name = node[:name].sub(/\Astrike\z/, "s")
        "[#{name}]#{node[:contents].map { |c| send(__method__, c) }.join}[/#{name}]"
      else
        node
      end
    end
    
    html = open(URL, &:read).strip
    ast  = parse(html)
    puts ast["html"]["body"]["div"]
      .find { |div| div[:attributes]["class"] == "container"      }["div"]
      .find { |div| div[:attributes]["id"]    == "content"        }["div"]["div"]
      .find { |div| div[:attributes]["id"]    == "mainbar"        }["div"]
      .find { |div| div[:attributes]["id"]    == "answers"        }["div"]
      .find { |div| div[:attributes]["id"]    == "answer-1732454" }["table"]["tr"]
      .first["td"]
      .find { |div| div[:attributes]["class"] == "answercell"     }["div"]["p"]
      .first[:contents]
      .map(&method(:convert_to_bbcode))  # to reach a wider audience
      .join
    

    Read more…

  • 11

    SEP
    2014

    Experimenting With Ownership

    Let's use a trivial exercise to see what we can learn about ownership, moving, borrowing, and more in Rust. Here's the idea:

    1. We'll allocate a list of numbers
    2. We'll add one to each number in the list
    3. We'll print the resulting list of numbers

    This is a simple process requiring only a few lines of code:

    fn main() {
        let mut numbers = vec![1u, 2, 3];
        for n in numbers.mut_iter() {
            *n += 1;
        }
        println!("{}", numbers);
    }
    

    The output is hopefully what we all expect to see:

    $ ./one_function 
    [2, 3, 4]
    

    In this code there is just one variable: numbers. That variable owns a list of numbers on the heap and it's scope is limited to the main() function, which is just a way to say that the data exists for the length of that function call. Since all three steps happen in that one function call, ownership doesn't really affect us here.

    To better examine what ownership really means, let's add one small twist to our exercise:

    • The increment of each number in the list must happen in a separate function

    Read more…

  • 6

    SEP
    2014

    Taking Rust to Task

    Now that I've reached the point where I can get some Rust code running without asking questions in IRC every five minutes, I really wanted to play with some tasks. Tasks are the way Rust handles multiprocessing code. Under the hood they can map one-to-one with operating system threads or you can use a many-to-one mapping that I'm not ready to go into yet.

    Probably one of the most exciting aspect of tasks in Rust, in my opinion, is that unsafe use of shared memory is rejected outright as a compile error. That lead me to want to figure out how you communicate correctly. (Spoiler: the same was you do in Ruby: just pass messages.)

    Ready to dive in, I grossly simplified a recent challenge from work and coded it up in Rust. You can get the idea with a glance at main():

    use std::collections::HashMap;
    
    // ...
    
    fn string_vec(strs: &[&'static str]) -> Vec<String> {
        let mut v = Vec::new();
        for s in strs.iter() {
            v.push(s.to_string());
        }
        v
    }
    
    fn main() {
        let mut services = HashMap::new();
        services.insert("S1".to_string(), string_vec(["A", "B"]));
        services.insert("S2".to_string(), string_vec(["A", "C"]));
        services.insert("S3".to_string(), string_vec(["C", "D", "E", "F"]));
        services.insert("S4".to_string(), string_vec(["D", "B"]));
        services.insert("S5".to_string(), string_vec(["A", "Z"]));
    
        let work = Work(Search::new("A".to_string(), "B".to_string()));
    
        let mut task_manager = TaskManager::new(services);
        task_manager.run(work);
    }
    

    Read more…

    In: Rusting | Tags: Concurrency & Rust | 1 Comment
  • 27

    AUG
    2014

    Which Types to Type

    I've mentioned before that I'm writing some Rust code, specifically an RPN calculator as a simple exercise. I'm going to dump the code here so we can discuss one aspect of it, but do remember that I'm very new to Rust and this code could surely be better:

    use std::fmt;
    use std::os;
    
    struct Stack {
        numbers: Vec<f64>
    }
    impl Stack {
        fn new() -> Stack {
            Stack{numbers: vec![]}
        }
    
        fn is_empty(&self) -> bool {
            self.numbers.is_empty()
        }
    
        fn push(&mut self, number: f64) {
            self.numbers.push(number);
        }
    
        fn result(&self) -> f64 {
            *self.numbers.last().expect("Stack empty.")
        }
    
        fn add(&mut self)      { self._do_binary_operation(|l, r| l + r); }
        fn subtract(&mut self) { self._do_binary_operation(|l, r| l - r); }
        fn multiply(&mut self) { self._do_binary_operation(|l, r| l * r); }
        fn divide(&mut self)   { self._do_binary_operation(|l, r| l / r); }
    
        fn _do_binary_operation(&mut self, operation: |f64, f64| -> f64) {
            let r = self.numbers.pop().expect("Stack underflow.");
            let l = self.numbers.pop().expect("Stack underflow.");
            self.numbers.push(operation(l, r));
        }
    }
    impl fmt::Show for Stack {
        fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
            let mut s = String::new();
            let mut i = self.numbers.len();
            for number in self.numbers.iter() {
                i -= 1;
                s = s.add(&format!("{}: {}\n", i, number));
            }
            s.pop_char();
            write!(f, "{}", s)
        }
    }
    
    struct Tokenizer {
        tokens: Vec<String>,
        i:      uint
    }
    impl Tokenizer {
        fn new(expression: &str) -> Tokenizer {
            Tokenizer{
              tokens: expression.split(|c: char| c.is_whitespace())
                                .map(|s| s.to_string())
                                .collect(),
              i:      0
            }
        }
    
        fn has_next_token(&self) -> bool {
            self.i < self.tokens.len()
        }
    
        fn next_token(&mut self) -> &str {
            if !self.has_next_token() { fail!("Tokens exhausted.") }
    
            let token = self.tokens[self.i].as_slice();
            self.i   += 1;
            token
        }
    }
    
    struct RPNCalculator {
        stack:  Stack,
        tokens: Tokenizer
    }
    impl RPNCalculator {
        fn new(stack: Stack, tokens: Tokenizer) -> RPNCalculator {
            RPNCalculator{stack: stack, tokens: tokens}
        }
    
        fn calculate(&mut self) -> f64 {
            while self.tokens.has_next_token() {
                let token = self.tokens.next_token();
                if !self.stack.is_empty() {
                    println!("{}", self.stack);
                }
                println!("T: {}\n", token);
                match token {
                    "+" => { self.stack.add(); }
                    "-" => { self.stack.subtract(); }
                    "*" => { self.stack.multiply(); }
                    "/" => { self.stack.divide(); }
                    n   => { self.stack.push(from_str(n).expect("Not a number.")); }
                }
            }
            if !self.stack.is_empty() {
                println!("{}\n", self.stack);
            }
            self.stack.result()
        }
    }
    
    fn main() {
        let     expression = os::args();
        let     stack      = Stack::new();
        let     tokenizer  = Tokenizer::new(expression[1].as_slice());
        let mut calculator = RPNCalculator::new(stack, tokenizer);
        println!("{}", calculator.calculate());
    }
    

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    In: Rusting | Tags: Rust & Style | 0 Comments